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Relevant Technical Reports

Atlantic Salmon


LIFE – Salmon Ecology

This account of the ecological requirements of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) has been produced as part of Life in UK Rivers – a project to develop methods for conserving the wildlife and habitats of rivers within the Natura 2000 network of protected European sites.
© (Text only) EN, CCW, EA, SEPA, SNH & SNIFFER 2003



LIFE Lamprey Ecology

This account of the ecology of the river, brook and sea lamprey (Lampetra fluviatilis, L. planeri and Petromyzon marinus) has been produced as part of Life in UK Rivers – a project to develop methods for conserving the wildlife and habitats of rivers within the Natura 2000 network of protected European sites.
© (Text only) EN, CCW, EA, SEPA, SNH & SNIFFER 2003


An outline of the biology, distribution and conservation of lamprey in Ireland

The brief of this study was to review the information on lamprey species in Irish freshwaters, with particular reference to their spawning sites. It was recommended that the resulting report should have a particular regard to information relevant to the selection and designation of sites as Special Areas of Conservation under the Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC).
© NPWS 1999


A review of the ecology and distribution of three species of lamprey in Ireland

A review of the ecology and distribution of three lamprey species, Lampetra fluviatilis (l.), Lampetra planeri (bloch) and Petromyzon marinus (l.): a context for conservation and biodiversity considerations in Ireland
© Royal Irish Academy 2001


The sea lamprey, river lamprey and brook lamprey in Ireland

The sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus (l.), river lamprey Lampetra fluviatilis (l.) and brook lamprey Lampetra planeri (bloch) in Ireland: general biology, ecology, distribution and status with recommendations for conservation
© Royal Irish Academy 2004

European Otter


NPWS Otters & Fyke Nets

Investigation into the impact of fyke nets on otter populations in Ireland
© NPWS 2007


NPWS Otter Survey in Ireland 2004/2005

The third Otter Survey of Ireland was carried out between August 2004 and August 2005. One principal surveyor and a team of trained NPWS personnel visited a total of 525 sites in 435 10km squares, distributed across the entire country, although concentrated in the 44 otter-designated Special Areas of Conservation.
© NPWS 2006


NPWS Otter Threat Response Plan 2009-2011

This plan is prepared as part of Ireland’s response to the judgement of the European Court of Justice in case C-183/05, and the requirement to establish a system of strict protection for the otter, as one of the animal species listed in Annex IV(a) of the Habitats Directive.
© NPWS 2009

Invasive Plants & Species


Invasive Species Newsletter May 2009

Invasive species pose a major and fast growing threat to native biodiversity in Europe. Plants and animals that find their way into new, unfamiliar habitats, can overwhelm native flora or fauna and damage the environment. These organisms are known as ‘invasive species’.
© European Commission 2009

Farming and Water Quality


Guidance for the Farming Community

Guidance for the farming community on protection of water resources and habitat quality from impacts due to livestock access to waters
© EPA 2009


Water Quality and Good Farming Practices

Guidance for the farming community on protection of water quality
© Monaghan County Council 2008


Tender Specification – The Trial of Alternative Water Sources for Cattle

Request for Tenders for “The Trial of Alternative Water Sources for Cattle With Direct Access to the Mulkear River and its tributaries in the Mulkear Catchment and Monitor Improvements in Water Quality”.

Irish Conservation Policy


Designation of sites for fish under the EU Habitats Directive

The EU Habitats Directive requires protection of species and habitats of European importance in Ireland. Six fish species will be given priority protection, together with other aquatic organisms. This paper outlines the relevance of this directive to Ireland’s fish fauna, describes the process involved and sets out the position in Ireland regarding designation under this directive as of September 2003.
© Royal Irish Academy 2004


Development of wildlife conservation policy legislation in Ireland

The mechanisms and procedures involved in the formulation of wildlife conservation policy are discussed with particular reference to the Wildlife (Amendment) Act 2000, the European Union (EU) Habitats Directive (Directive 92/43/EEC) and the National Biodiversity Plan (2002).
© Royal Irish Academy 2004


National Biodiversity Plan

Biological diversity – the variety of life on Earth – is experiencing serious and accelerating losses. This National Biodiversity Plan sets out the framework through which Ireland will provide for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity over a five year period. Under fifteen themes and sectors, it details actions which will be pursued to achieve this objective.
© Government of Ireland 2002


The economic and social aspects of biodiversity

This report has been commissioned by the Biodiversity Unit of the Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government to identify the nature and scale of benefits that we, as a society, derive from biodiversity. It is important that public goods, including those supplied by nature, are reflected in decision making.
© Government of Ireland 2008

EU LIFE Publications


EC Ecosystem Goods & Services

Ecosystems underpin all human life and activities. The goods and services they provide are vital to sustaining well-being, and to future economic and social development.
© European Commission 2009


EC – More action is needed to save Europe’s Biodiversity

The EU and its Member States need to urgently take much firmer action to have any chance of coming close to the objective of halting the loss of biodiversity in 2010. This is the key message from the EU’s Biodiversity Action Plan mid-term report, issued in December 2008.
© European Commission 2008


A cleaner greener Europe

As Europe has grown wealthier, we have consistently produced more and more waste. In the European Union alone, we generate over 1.8 billion tonnes of solid waste each year, an average of 3.8 tonnes per man, woman and child. Most of this waste is either burnt in incinerators or dumped into landfills, which, if not properly managed, can be harmful not only to the environment but also to human health, to plants and animals.
© European Communities 2004


LIFE on the farm

Agriculture is essential to everybody, everyday, everywhere. It provides us with food and biomaterial, rural employment and even renewable energy. Furthermore, it plays an important role in maintaining the rural landscape and semi-natural habitats. However, agricultural practices do exert significant pressures on Europe’s natural environment and on natural resources.
© European Communities 2008


Water an Essential Resource

European water policy is going through considerable changes at present. The adoption of the framework Directive on water provides a policy tool that enables this essential resource to be protected in a sustainable way.<br />
© European Communities 2002


Alien Species

Second only to habitats deterioration, invasive alien species are one of the major threats to biodiversity. Facing this threat represents one of the most ambitious challenges for the start of the new millennium. Considering the dimension of the threat posed by alien species the Commission decided to collect information on actions being carried out to face the problem within the <span>LIFE</span> program, the main EU fund directed at nature conservation.
© European Communities 2004


Communicating with stakeholders

LIFE’s objectives are to encourage proper communication on Natura 2000 and to develop solutions in the field. LIFE-Nature, even if everyone has not understood its needs since its early origins, becomes a clear tool not only for going into the heart of Natura 2000’s issue operating at the level of the individual sites but also for bringing together landowners, land users and stakeholders, inviting them to find sustainable, balanced and consensual solutions for their specific management problems.
© European Communities 2004


LIFE Agri-Environment

The Natura 2000 Network must surely be one of the more ambitious environmental targets the European Union has set itself. It is probably the first attempt in the world to create, in a systematic way and according to a strict timetable, a coherent ecological network spanning half a continent.
© European Communities 2003


LIFE Endangered Plants

Plants are vital to almost every aspect of our daily lives. They provide us with food, fibres, medicines, fuel, shelter, clothing and the air we breathe. Many animal species are also directly dependent on plants for their survival. Plants are essential constituents of ecosystems and play a key role in the Earth’s system.
© European Communities 2008


LIFE European Forests

Forests are one of Europe’s most important renewable resources. Over a third of the EU-25 territory is covered by forest and other wooded land. We depend on our forests for many vital functions.
© European Communities 2006


LIFE Europe’s Rivers

As sources of water and means of transportation, Europe’s rivers have been crucial for many human settlements. Industries have developed by rivers for the easy shipping of manufactured products and the importing of goods and materials. Economic activities, however, have placed a heavy burden on many rivers, which have also been used as natural sewers.
© European Communities 2007


LIFE Natura 2000

Recognising the importance of safeguarding biodiversity, in June 2002 the European Council of Göteborg set a target of halting its decline by 2010. Fulfilling this target has been adopted as one of the key aims of the 6th Community Action Plan for the Environment.
© European Communities 2003


LIFE Marine Environment

The world’s oceans and seas cover 71% of the Earth’s surface and contain more biological diversity than terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. The marine environment is a precious asset and a great contributor to economic prosperity, social well-being and quality of life. However, the marine environment is under pressure.
© European Communities 2006


LIFE Management of Natura 2000 Sites

The aim of this brochure is to illustrate the contribution that the LIFE-nature programme has made to the integrated management of Natura 2000 sites. The term integrated management is used to indicate the care of a site coincidental with the management of another activity or resource, such as agriculture or water, as opposed to the sole activity of nature conservation.
© European Communities 2005


LIFE Nature Projects 2004

LIFE Nature: the Commission supports 77 nature conservation projects with 76 millions Euro. In 2004 the European Commission approved funding for 77 nature conservation projects under the LIFE financial instrument.
© European Communities 2005


LIFE Nature Projects 2005

LIFE-Nature 2005: Commission provides €69 million to 54 nature conservation projects in 20 countries. The European Commission has approved funding for 54 nature conservation projects, in 20 Member States or acceding countries, under the LIFE-Nature programme 2005.
© European Communities 2005

LIFE and coastal management

LIFE’s Blueprint for Water Resources

The project-based approach of the EU LIFE programme has proved a good fit with water policy, providing practical examples of sustainable and equitable ways of using water. This publication contains many such examples from LIFE Environment (and Nature) projects across Europe.
© European Union 2012


LIFE Managing Habitat for Birds

LIFE Managing Habitat for birds offers a host of examples from projects that have introduced management programmes for wetlands, grasslands, forests and other habitats favoured by endangered birds. This publication highlights the crucial link between habitat management and the conservation of Europe’s threatened bird species.
© European Union 2012

Fishing the Mulkear


Mulkear River Fisheries Partnership

Fishing details for the Mulkear

Mulkear LIFE, Inland Fisheries Ireland, Ashbourne Business Park, Dock Road, Limerick, Ireland
Phone: +353 (0)61 300 238   Email: